Find out what all happened in the 13. century

Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris. (1. January 1259)

Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans. (6. January 1205)

François Grimaldi, disguised as a monk, leads his men to capture the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco, establishing his family as the rulers of Monaco. (8. January 1297)

King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca. (17. January 1287)

In Westminster, the first English parliament conducts its first meeting held by Simon de Montfort in the Palace of Westminster, now also known colloquially as the "Houses of Parliament". (20. January 1265)

Terra Mariana, comprising present-day Estonia and Latvia, is established. (2. February 1207)

The Mongols burn the Russian city of Vladimir. (8. February 1238)

Seventh Crusade: Crusaders engage Ayyubid forces in the Battle of Al Mansurah. (8. February 1250)

Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed. (10. February 1258)

Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. (16. February 1249)

Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeats the Livonian Order in the Battle of Karuse. (16. February 1270)

The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. (18. February 1229)

The Livonian Brothers of the Sword are defeated by Dovmont of Pskov in the Battle of Rakvere. (18. February 1268)

Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland, is granted resignation after confessing to torture and forgery. (21. February 1245)

Mongol–Jin War: The Mongols capture Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin Dynasty, after besieging it for months. (26. February 1233)

Battle of Benevento: An army led by Charles, Count of Anjou, defeats a combined German and Sicilian force led by King Manfred of Sicily. Manfred is killed in the battle and Pope Clement IV invests Charles as king of Sicily and Naples. (26. February 1266)

The Siege of Jaén ends in the context of the Spanish Reconquista resulting in the Castilian takeover of the city from the Taifa of Jaen. (28. February 1246)

The Statute of Rhuddlan incorporates the Principality of Wales into England. (3. March 1284)

The Battle of the Sit River is fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia between the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Rus'. (4. March 1238)

The Livonian Order is defeated in the Battle of Aizkraukle by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (5. March 1279)

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